Kidane A.

Ученая степень
University of Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Статьи автора

Threshold effects of inflation on economic growth in selected African regional economic communities: Evidence from a dynamic panel threshold modeling

The objective of this study is to estimate inflation threshold and examine its impact on the inflation-growth nexus in selected African regional economic communities. While a number of empirical studies exist in this area for developing countries, they bundle up countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America which do not have the same inflation experiences. This study therefore focuses on Africa. However, since African regional groupings themselves have different inflation experiences, non-linearity in the relationship between inflation and growth is explored within each grouping separately. The study uses dynamic panel threshold modeling recently suggested by Kremer et al. (2013) which extends the non-dynamic panel threshold model of Hansen (1999) and the cross-sectional threshold model of Caner and Hansen (2004). The results indicate that the estimated inflation threshold is different across the regional economic communities. Nonlinearity in inflation-growth nexus seems to hold in CEMAC, COMESA and SADC while it is questioned in WAEMU and WAMZ. For CEMAC, COMESA and SADC, the findings indicate that inflation above the threshold is harmful to growth. Some correlations are established in this study but further analysis is needed to suggest a policy.
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The demand for cigarette in Tanzania: A temporal approach

The study presented here attempts to estimate the effect of increased price of cigarettes on the corresponding consumption in Tanzania. The study is based on household panel survey data that were conducted over three periods in 2008, 2010 and 2012. For each period price is estimated indirectly. The price increase was substantial and higher than the corresponding aggregate Consumer Price Index (CPI). An attempt is made to relate the increase in price with a possible decrease in cigarette consumption. The methods of analysis are descriptive tabular statistics and the «two-equation econometrics» approach. Over the study period, the descriptive approach showed a substantial increase in price but a modest decrease in cigarette consumption prevalence rate, intensity rate and per capita consumption. When a more robust and powerful econometric method was applied, the results showed a substantial decrease in consumption. There was a significant reduction in intensity compared to participation. Between 2008 and 2010 total price elasticity of demand decreased from –0.686 to –0.727. In 2012 the value was –1.139. The reduction in consumption was much higher among the very poor and the poor (–2.387 and –1.967 respectively). When cross classified by age group the youth (20 years or less) showed a high elasticity of –1.672. The results suggest that in a typical African country smokers (who are relatively poor) will react to substantial price increase in a predictable manner. Price elasticity of demand greater than absolute unity need not be unusual.
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